Ford Fiesta (2008)
The all-new Ford Fiesta is the latest application of the company's kinetic design philosophy, building on the exciting momentum of Ford's distinctive iosis and iosis X concept cars and the premium feel of latest-generation production models like the new Mondeo and Focus, bringing the modern Ford of Europe family style to the small car segment.
Since the iosis concept vehicle introduced kinetic design in 2005, each new Ford has been created in a new interpretation of this form language, translating the trademark bold graphic elements and proportions to create a family of distinctive models.
Ford of Europe's Executive Director of Design, Martin Smith, uses expressions like 'precision sculpted', 'agile muscularity' and 'toned athleticism' to describe the Ford design philosophy that has now created new Ford Fiesta.
However, this does not mean a 'one size fits all' approach. Martin Smith explains: "Kinetic design is not just a matter of 'cut and paste' from one vehicle to the next; each is a new interpretation of the fundamental design elements. A kinetic small car can emphasise different elements of the form language to a larger car, and to different degrees."
The result is a new Ford Fiesta that joins a family of vehicles immediately identifiable as new generation Fords, yet with distinctive character to appeal to their target audiences. New Ford Fiesta asserts its own air of confidence, stylishness and individuality.
"We have a kinetic family look now - each individual, yet instantly identifiable as part of the new generation of Ford vehicles," explains Smith.
From Concept to Reality
For new Ford Fiesta, the challenge for Smith and his team was to reflect the acknowledged character and driving dynamics that this popular small car has always represented, while reinvigorating the Ford Fiesta brand to attract a whole new generation of customers, many of them new to Ford and new to Fiesta. Along with this, the team had to ensure that new Ford Fiesta was undeniably a modern Ford.
The predominately young target audience was defined early on by the design team as 'Design Progressives' - a group that immediately identified with the kinetic design philosophy of 'energy in motion'.
Early in the design process, the design team showed different design concepts to groups of these customers, translating the favoured treatment into the original Ford Verve Concept, later revealed at auto shows around the world.
From the outset, the Verve Concept was created with an eye toward production. Through this process, new Ford Fiesta customers are clearly able to see the strong visual relationship between the concept car that excited them and the production car created from it.
A Small Ford for a New Generation
From front to rear, the all-new Ford Fiesta exudes presence and individuality.
It wears the distinctive, bold Ford 'face'. Most noticeably, it uses the signature, large, inverted trapezoidal lower grille and large, centred Ford oval badge that characterises both the Verve Concept and other modern Ford family vehicles.
Chrome and brightwork are used selectively, like jewellery accents, to convey elegance and sophistication. The lower grille features this effect with its clean, precise chrome surround.
The grille is finished with a bisecting, horizontal number plate bar and framed by a dynamic-looking front structure, sculpted as if a pair of 'toned muscles' were located on either side of the bonnet.
The application of such a strong face creates recognition and communicates an attitude that is bold and sporty, yet friendly and engaging.
"We focused on bringing more emotion and character into Ford Fiesta and to make the car appear larger and more athletic than the previous model, even though it remains the same size," explains Stefan Lamm, Chief Exterior Designer, Ford of Europe. "The grille is one of the main elements in achieving this, by drawing attention to the front of the car."
Moving rearwards, sleek, wraparound headlamps sweep back sharply, making both a strong visual statement as well as allowing for a very short shut-line to the sculpted, clamshell bonnet. This treatment gives new Ford Fiesta a friendly, open and inviting personality, and in turn helps fulfil the requirements of pedestrian protection.
Strong brand character elements feature along the side of the vehicle, with bold, pronounced wheel arch lips - now a key feature of the Ford brand DNA and present across the portfolio of models. These communicate tension and muscularity, signature elements of kinetic design.
Above the wheel lips is a rising bodyside beltline, a strong dynamic line sweeping along the side of the car towards the high rear light cluster. This maintains the 'wedge' attitude admired on the Verve Concept and communicates robustness. The undercut panel running beneath this line adds strength and tension, while the door handles are carefully integrated, for a tidy, harmonious finish.
A sloping A-pillar extends forward towards the front wheel centre line to shorten visually the overhang, while an A-pillar window adds to the sporty look and aids visibility.
New Fiesta retains the sweeping profile and treatment of the glass area - or Day Light Opening (DLO) - of the Verve Concept. This acts as a visual reinforcement of apparent movement that does much to emphasise the car's sporty character. Side windows combine neatly to create a unified side window graphic - another kinetic design element that communicates dynamism.
The upper arc of this window shape forms a feature line that incorporates the shapes of the tail lamps and rear spoiler into a coherent signature, while an elegant chrome accent frames the lower edge of the side glass and accentuates the established Ford 'kick-up' at the lower rear corner.
At the same time, the sweeping roofline extends back appealingly from the forward-stretching A-pillar, framing the bold graphic of the Ford Fiesta side window profile just as on the Verve Concept.
This design approach is applied to both three-door and five-door models, retaining a dramatic and dynamic profile without sacrificing the true family car package.
"We took the five-door design as seriously as the three-door," says Stefan Lamm. "Both cars are based on the same body, which makes the five-door particularly sporty and dynamic, almost like a five-door coupé."
At the rear of the car, many kinetic elements combine, including the chamfered rear glass area, low roofline sweeping into a small spoiler, the distinctive licence plate graphic and dramatic tail lamps with honeycomb detailing, positioned high on Ford Fiesta's rear corners. Smith believes this combination is "the most distinctive aspect of the vehicle".
An integrated, dark grey lower diffuser insert accentuates the bumper shape and adds to the athletic stance of new Ford Fiesta. The diffuser lends an air of lightness to the rear shape while its lines stretching outward toward the bumper lip draw the eyes once again to the wheels and Ford Fiesta's sporty stance.
It would be easy to overlook such subtle elements were they not designed to be enhanced through colour. The unique exterior colour of the European Verve Concept - called Hot Magenta - has been translated to the production car as one of seven new colours developed for new Ford Fiesta - with a total of 15 exterior colours available.
Creating a striking, kinetic exterior shape was just one part of the new Fiesta design story and the Ford Verve Concept that preceded it. New Fiesta is as dramatic on the inside as it is on the outside, with courageous use of dynamic lines, full surfaces and bold graphics.
Boldly shaped surfaces and contrasting colours and materials feature in an enveloping dashboard design that wraps around the driver and passenger and creates individual space. Through the application of carefully developed and matched colours and trims, new Ford Fiesta's interior meets a full spectrum of customer desires, from a playful sense of fashion to mature sophistication.
"It's a warm, inviting cabin," explains Niko Vidakovic, Chief Interior Designer, Ford of Europe. "We've taken great care to ensure that this overall feel is maintained across the new Ford Fiesta range, but differentiated by the use of a range of colours and trim materials."
Designed for the Times
For inspiration, new Ford Fiesta's Design team studied extensively the styling and use of luxury goods and consumer electronics to create the look and feel for new Ford Fiesta's cabin and main controls.
From the driver's seat, the eye is drawn immediately to new Ford Fiesta's striking instrument panel centre stack. Designed for a global population familiar with the design language and intuitive operation of mobile phones and personal music players, new Ford Fiesta's centre stack houses the car's Human Machine Interface (HMI), linked to a multi-function display screen in a high-mounted binnacle, close to the driver's field of vision.
Functionally, a key element of the design is the decoupling of the traditional in-car entertainment system elements - screen, controls and electronics - something only made possible by development of underlying technologies. Separating these elements allowed designers to place controls and buttons for optimal ergonomic positioning in a design that resembles the usage logic of a modern mobile phone.
"Cars in the past featured a 'big brick' audio head unit, which created vertical surfaces," explains Vidakovic. "In new Fiesta, the only visible part of the underlying electronics is the CD slot. The buttons and the multi-function displays are separated from the electronic control unit and this is far less constraining on design freedom."
As a result, every button and switch on the HMI has been crafted with the minute attention to detail that characterises good portable electronic designs. New Ford Fiesta introduces a new approach to form and function and the instrument panel centre stack looks and feels very different to traditional automotive switchgear.
Echoing this theme are the stylish rotary controls for heating and air-conditioning that sit at the base of the centre stack, styled to reflect the look and feel of high-end power shower controls.
"Simple touches can radiate a feeling of quality," says Vidakovic. "These are critical touch points in the cabin, for both driver and passenger and creating a sensation of class through their styling and movement was essential."
Precision and Confidence
Surrounding the centre stack are several defining interior elements that tell you immediately this must be a new Ford - with every one of these elements designed to reflect the character of the vehicle.
"Most important is the steering wheel," highlights Vidakovic. "It's the core interaction between driver and vehicle and carries a size and feel that communicates new Ford Fiesta's sportiness and confident driving quality."
The wheel has a modern, sculpted feel, using bright accents on its spokes to create a futuristic look. This is reinforced by the view through the wheel to the precision primary instruments and controls. The primary display - speedometer and rev counter - are framed by binocular-shaped, short tunnels of brightwork, which complement the centre stack and contrast the interior colours in another example of expressive design.
The attention to detail includes elements such as the new control stalks on the steering column, created to be precise and delightful to use. Again, the design team sought inspiration outside the automotive world and here it was provided by the packaging of luxury cosmetics, which often incorporate sophisticated, quality detailing to convey brand appeal. The column stalks use weight and precise action to communicate quality and responsiveness.
Quality is further evident in many details throughout new Fiesta's interior, including such touches as the stitching on leather seats, the texture of cloth seats and playful 'Y' graphic on the seat facings.
Colours Make the Mood
As with the exterior, colours play as vital a role as shape in defining and establishing the character and attitude of the different new Ford Fiesta models.
The range and breadth of colours, materials and interior trims available is class leading and will address the needs of both traditional customers and the predominately younger buyers who may be new to the Ford brand.
In total, there are five distinct series options - Ambiente, Trend, Ghia, Sport and Titanium - and 11 different colour and trim combinations for the interior.
Each option features a two-colour instrument panel, with differing contrasts toned to match the palette of the exterior - higher in sports models and muted in more traditional Ghia interiors.
The blend of colours is designed to be harmonious and was inspired by the exclusive fabrics and leathers of haute couture, according to Ruth Pauli, Chief Designer, Colours and Trims, Ford of Europe.
"Colour plays an important role in making an emotional contact with customers," Pauli explains. "With new Fiesta, we have selected expressive colours in the right harmonies and contrasts, together with quality materials like glove-leather that's beautiful to touch. These details bring a feeling of 'premium-ness' into a volume small car."
The use of colour and kinetic design elements allowed the Design team to create more contemporary interpretations of established models, such as Ghia, and to incorporate new considerations, such as street fashion, into other models in the range. For example:
- The Ambiente model offers a warm, inviting cabin, using a light contrast instrument panel
- The Trend series takes its inspiration from designer clothing and bespoke suits to emphasise a contemporary feel
- The new Sport model offers a neutral or blue theme in higher contrast colours and an inlaid graphic element reflective of those used in snowboard designs
- The luxurious Ghia series utilises a champagne gold colour, for a softer, more Italian style. Inspired by luxury brands, Ghia offers soft-touch materials with low-contrast, tonal colour changes
- The modern Titanium model employs a Soho Burgundy red colour, with dark gloss, high contrast finishes for a sleek, technical appearance, inspired by premium technology brands
"Each series should look different and have a different feeling," concludes Pauli. "The same, striking interior form language can create a range of moods through the application of different colour and trim materials, from sporty to sophisticate."
For the Titanium series, an Aesthetic Lighting Pack enhances the use of colour even further. In this premium, big-car feature a dome light comprising two small LEDs - situated in the overhead courtesy lamp - illuminates the centre console and gearshift area in a soft red glow.
A second ambient LED light source within the dash panel above the glove box emits a complementary soft red light on the passenger side of the car.
When the doors are opened, ambient lights brighten and are matched with footwell courtesy lighting. Even the centre console has an internal red LED illumination when opened that reflects premium electronic devices.
Martin Smith concludes: "This is designed to be the most complete, expressive and exciting Fiesta Ford has ever produced, inside and out. To me, it is a car that evokes an instant emotional response - 'I want one' - before you even get near it."
Responsive Handling - Sophisticated Ride
Depending on the road conditions and the mood of the driver, new Ford Fiesta offers a combination of sporty and dynamic handling, a sophisticated and mature cruising ability and an effortless performance in urban driving.
"It was very important that new Fiesta would deliver the superior driving capabilities expected from a Ford vehicle, whether in the city or on twisty country roads and at a range of speeds," says Norbert Kessing. "Our aim was to create a driving environment where the driver will always feel comfortable and in full control."
To enhance the controlled driving environment, Ford engineers also refined Ford's Electronic Stability Programme (ESP) for new Ford Fiesta, which is available as an option across the range.
The Ford Fiesta ESP system has been developed to reinforce new Fiesta's sporty driving characteristics. It is designed to be non-intrusive during spirited driving but to provide crucial protection should the situation require it, something which required careful, detailed development work.
"It's easy to make a car safe with ESP, but if you want to make the car engaging and agile as well, then that takes a lot of attention to detail. We're proud of what we've achieved with new Ford Fiesta," says Kessing.
Power Up - Emissions Down
Across the model range, new Ford Fiesta combines an enhanced and efficient powertrain line-up with weight reductions to deliver better fuel economy and reduced CO2 emissions.
The Ford Fiesta range - with four 16-valve Duratec petrol and two Duratorq TDCi diesel engine choices - offers a projected range-wide CO2 average of 132 g/km, a 1.3 per cent improvement over the already efficient previous Ford Fiesta. This incremental advance represents a potential saving of over 11,000 tonnes of CO2 across Europe, assuming annual European sales comparable with the previous Fiesta and an average distance of 15,000 kilometres per year.
However, this is just the beginning of the story; new Ford Fiesta also introduces the latest in Ford's ECOnetic range of low-CO2 models. The new Ford Fiesta ECOnetic offers the impressive torque of the 1.6-litre Ford Duratorq TDCi engine with target CO2 emissions of just 99 grams per kilometre (g/km).
"It's here that all the hard, uncompromising work by the Ford Fiesta team really pays off for the customer," says Joerg Beyer, Chief Carline Engineer for new Fiesta. "Reducing fuel consumption and CO2 emissions was absolutely central to our powertrain development strategy for new Ford Fiesta. It's important to customers; it's important to Ford and it's important to governments. We believe the results of our efforts make new Fiesta truly a compelling choice for environmentally aware drivers."
New Ford Fiesta is approximately 40 kilogrammes lighter than its predecessor and is also among best in class for its small, 2.08 square metre frontal area and drag coefficient of 0.33. Similarly, while many competitors have grown taller with each new generation, new Fiesta has reduced in height by 36 mm, versus the previous model.
"We kept a razor-sharp focus on avoiding gains in size and weight," Beyer says. "When you combine that with new powertrain technologies, aerodynamic efficiency and careful engine calibrations, the fuel economy and emissions benefits really start adding up."
New Ford Fiesta's Electric Power Assist Steering (EPAS) system also plays its part. Compared with traditional hydraulic power-steering pumps which operate constantly, EPAS only operates when steering assistance is required. Ford powertrain and vehicle dynamics engineers carefully calibrated the system for optimal steering precision and feel for the driver, as a primary driving quality objective for the car.
All powertrains fitted to new Ford Fiesta achieve Euro Stage IV emissions standards.
Duratorq TDCi - Better Than Ever
Two popular Duratorq TDCi engines, with state-of-the-art common-rail injection, are available for new Ford Fiesta, featuring new technologies, enhanced fuel economy, lower CO2 emissions and improved performance.
New Ford Fiesta customers can choose from the popular 1.4-litre, 68 PS or the 1.6-litre, 90 PS TDCi, both offering improved fuel economy over the corresponding previous Fiesta model.
In new Ford Fiesta, both are rated identically for combined fuel consumption, at just 4.2 litres per 100 kilometres (67.3 mpg), and CO2 emissions, at just 110 g/km - an improvement over the previous Fiesta of 6.7 per cent for the 1.4-litre and 4.6 per cent for the 1.6-litre. In real terms, this improvement equates to saving approximately 45 litres of fuel over an average year's driving (15,000 kilometres) for the 1.4-litre TDCi - or an extra tankful for each customer.
In other conditions, the 1.4-litre TDCi achieves 5.3 litres per 100 kilometres (53.3 mpg) on the urban cycle and 3.5 litres per 100 kilometres (80.7 mpg) on the extra urban cycle. The 1.6-litre TDCi is rated at 5.2 litres per 100 kilometres (54.3 mpg) urban and 3.6 litres per 100 kilometres (78.5 mpg) extra urban.
All Ford Duratorq TDCi diesel engines come with state-of-the-art common rail injection technology for high efficiency, high pulling power and low fuel consumption. In addition, under full acceleration, the engine calibration allows the maximum nominal torque to be briefly topped by 'transient overboost' when the driver needs it for overtaking or similar situations.
Twin pilot injection technology is featured for the 1.4-litre TDCi for smooth operation and significant improvement in noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) performance. Pilot injections are small doses of fuel prior to the main injection of fuel, precisely timed by the engine electronic controls and delivered through its common rail system at pressures of up to 1,500 bar.
The 1.4-litre TDCi uses Siemens Piezo injectors and control strategy with capability for multiple pilot injections. Twin pilot is used as extensively across the speed and load range as possible. At idle and low speed, this gives a significant noise improvement by softening the combustion process, achieved by spreading it over a larger crank angle.
The 1.6-litre TDCi also incorporates significant calibration enhancements. It uses a Bosch control system with peak fuel pressure of 1,600 bar. Detailed attention has been devoted to tuning the system's interactions with exhaust gas recirculation, rail pressure and injection timing. This provides for more refinement, especially at low speed and load levels.
"New Ford Fiesta takes an enormous step forward in terms of combustion noise," King says. "It's another pleasant surprise for the diesel customer."
Part of the improved refinement of the latest Duratorq engines is achieved through careful calibrations of their speed at idle. With the target of achieving a smooth, constant idle speed, Ford powertrain engineers devoted extensive attention to fuelling and timing calibrations. Rigorous testing was conducted even with low-quality fuels to ensure that the engines would maintain smooth idle operation, simulating worst-case conditions.
New Fiesta diesels also feature load-dependent idle speed. The engine control system senses high load factors, such as air-conditioning, and changes the idle speed accordingly. This system features intelligent controls to ensure that idle speed is kept as low as possible to minimise fuel consumption.
Both TDCi engines are constructed of aluminium alloy. This reduces the weight of the engine, contributing to responsive performance and good fuel economy.
New Duratec Ti-VCT Engine
New Ford Fiesta provides even more powertrain choice for the customer with the introduction of a more powerful, 1.6-litre Duratec Twin Independent Variable Cam Timing (Ti-VCT) petrol engine to the range.
The new, 120 PS Duratec Ti-VCT is offered exclusively in the new Ford Fiesta Sport model. It accelerates Fiesta Sport from zero to 100 km/h (0-62 mph) in 9.9 seconds and sits at the top of the new Ford Fiesta petrol engine range, joining the acclaimed 1.25-litre and 1.4-litre petrol engines.
Despite its feisty character and its 20 extra horsepower, the new Duratec Ti-VCT is still more fuel efficient than the 100 PS, 1.6-litre engine in the previous Fiesta. New Fiesta Sport still returns a combined fuel economy of 5.9 litres per 100 kilometres (47.9 mpg) and CO2 emissions of 139 g/km.
The responsive new Duratec Ti-VCT engine delivers strong torque output across the mid-rev range, peaking at 152 Nm at 4,050 rev/min, and it uses twin independent variable cam timing to provide the optimal balance of performance and fuel economy.
This high-tech engine features map-controlled fully independent variable camshaft timing on intake and exhaust camshaft. Featured in the second-generation Ford Focus and the latest Mondeo, it offers very good fuel economy in combination with high performance.
The Duratec Ti-VCT also features an aluminium cylinder head and block, which contribute to the new Ford Fiesta's weight-control strategy.